Contents:
I Episodes occurring both in the Pali texts and Chinese translations
(1) The chief benefactor
(2) Three kinds of uposathā
(3) Eight precepts for lay followers
(4) aniyata rules (1) when a bhikkhu sits alone with a woman in a secluded place
(5) aniyata rules (2) when a bhikkhu sits alone with a woman in a less secluded place
(6) pācittiya offence: bhikkhus must refrain from picking up a valuable object which has been left on the ground.
(7) nissaggiya-pācittiya offence: Using a rains-bathing cloth before the last two weeks of the fourth month, or accepting one before the fourth month.
(8) pācittiya offence: bhikkhus must refrain from having a rains-bathing cloth made exceeding than the standard measurement
(9) Seeking advice of Sakyamuni about how to deal with the quarrelsome bhikkhus of Kosambi.
(10) Permission to receive donations of a water pot, broom, and palm-leaf fan.
II Episodes only in the Pali texts
(1) Eight duties of a woman. AN. 008-005-047 (vol. IV, p. 267, ll. 2-7)
(2) Four duties of a woman. AN. 008-005-049 (vol. IV, p. 269, ll. 15-22)
(3) In a list of upāsikā. AN. 008-091 (vol. IV, p. 347, l. 20-p. 348, l. 4)
(4) Dissatisfaction with King Pasenadi of Kosala. Udāna 002-009 (p. 18, ll. 5-18)
(5) Death of Visākhā's grand-daughter. Udāna 008-008 (p. 91, ll. 12-p. 92, 1.23)
(6) After Visākhā's death. Vimānavatthu (p. 63, ll. 22-29)
(7) Visākhā's previous lives. Apadāna (vol. II, pp. 546. 554, 558. 561, 565. 568)
(8) Request of Visākhā's grandson to be given ordination during uposatha. Vinaya
Vassupanāyikakkhandhaka (vol. I, p.153, ll. 6-23)
(9) Offering a napkin to Sakyamuni, which he accepted. Vinaya Cīvarakkhandhaka (vol. I, p. 296,
ll. 7-20)
(10) Offering of a "storeyed building" (pasada) accepted. Vinaya Senāsanakkhandhaka (vol. II, p.
169, ll. 24-29)
III Episodes only in Chinese translations
(1) Visākhā asks the bhikkhuni Dhammadina about the Dhamma. Zhong ahan jing (T 1: 788a-790b)
(2) A bhikkhuni touches the body of Migāramātā's grandchild. Wufen lü. Bhikkhuni parajika no. 5
(T 22: 78a)
(3) The number of Visākhā's children. Mohesengqi lü. Aniyata rule no. 1 (T 22: 290a)
(4) Requests  nanda to give a discourse. Mohesengqi lü (T 22: 336a)
(5) Donates robes for the dragon kings Nanda and Ubananda. Mohesengqi lü. Pacittiya rule no. 27
(T 22: 320c-321c)
(6) Donates temple for the bhikkhuni Faxing. Genben youbu lü (T 23: 750c-752c)
(7) Bhikkhus may receive donations of food at more than one place when robes are being donated.
Mohesengqi lü. Rule no. 32 (T 22: 352c-353a)
(8) Donating food to sixteen bhikkhus. Mohesengqi lü. Rule no. 71 (T 22: 383a)
(9) Appeal to bhikkhus and bhikkhunis. Mohesengqi lü. Bhikkhuni parajika no. 84 (T 22: 531b)
(10) Appeal for bathing cloths. Wufen lü. Bhikkhuni Nissaggiya Pacittiya no. 22 (T 22: 83a-84b)
(11) Donation of a monastery for bhikkhunis. Wufen lü. Bhikkhuni parajika no. 97 (T 22: 89c-90a)
(12) Distribution of bathing robes. Sifen lü. (T 22: 864a-b)
(13) Donation of fruit for eating during permitted period. Sifen lü. (T 22: 868a-b)
(14) Donation of various robes. Wufen lü. (T 22: 140b)
(15) 齋限施を作す?? Wufen lü. (T 22: 152a)
(16) Building a monastery to accommodate wandering bhikkhus. Wufen lü. (T 22: 65b-c)
(17) Building a great hall and distributing rice and grain to the four groups. Wufen lü. (T 22: 168a)
(18) Donating gruel to a sick person. Wufen lü. (T 22: 171c)
(19) Sending five hundred iron pots. Genben youbu lü (T 24: 250b-c)
(20) Quoted as the representative of the upāsikā.
IV Episodes in the Aṭṭhakathā
(1) Concise biography, and origins of the Pubbārāma Migāramātupāsāda
(2) Inquiry into the incident of the married bhikkhuni
(3) Questions concerning the residence of the Elder Revata
(4) Concerning uposatha
(5) Asking Sakyamuni about the occurrence of alcohol
(6) Visākhā's grand-daughter and the young bhikkhu
(7) Visākhā's grand-daughter's death
(8) The number of Visākhā's children and grandchildren
(9) The eight requests of Visākhā
(10) Other episodes confined to mention of Visākhā
(11) Visākhā's donations
(12) Mention of Visākhā as the representative upāsikā
(13) Records of Chinese priests of later times
V Detailed biographies of Visākhā Migāramātā
(1) Visākhā's birth and family. DhA. (vol. I, p. 384, l. 13-p. 385, l. 5); AN-A (vol. I, p. 405, ll. 8-19)
(2) The five wealthy men of Bimbisāra's kingdom. DhA. (vol. I, p. 385, ll. 5-8); AN-A (vol. I, p.405, ll. 19-22-)
(3) Visākhā attains the stage of stream-enterer aged seven. DhA. (vol. I, p. 385, ll. 8-24); AN-A (vol.I, p. 405, l. 22-p. 406, l. 18)
(4) King Pasenadi of Kosala asks King Bimbisāra to send one person of great merit to his country.
DhA. (vol. I, p. 385, l. 26-p. 386, l. 9); AN-A (vol. I, p. 407, ll. 19-21)
(5) King Bimbisāra sends Dhanañjaya DhA. (vol. I, p. 386, ll. 9-19); AN-A (vol. I, p. 406, l. 22-p.406, ll. 22-25)
(6) Building Sāketa. DhA. (vol. I, p. 386, l. 19-p. 387, l. 6); AN-A (vol. I, p. 406, ll. 25-27)
(7) Puṇṇavaḍḍhana's "five beauties" required of a bride. DhA. (vol. I, p. 387, l. 6-p. 388, l.5); AN-A(vol. I, p. 406, ll. 27-28)
(8) Migāra sends out eight brahmans to seek a girl with the "five beauties". DhA. (vol. I, p. 388, ll.5-12); AN-A (vol. I, p. 407, ll. 1-3)
(9) Discovery of Visākhā, endowed with the "five beauties". DhA. (vol. I, p. 388, l. 12-p. 391, l.16); AN-A (vol. I, p. 407, l. 4-p. 408, l. 19)
(10) The household of Migāra and its welcome of Visākhā as bride. DhA. (vol. I, p. 391, l. 16-p.394, l. 2); AN-A (vol. I, p. 408, l. 19-p. 409, l. 30)
(12) Preparations to enter Migāra's household. DhA. (vol. I, p. 395, l. 9-p. 397, l. 11)
(13) Dhanañjaya gives Visākhā ten admonitions. DhA. (vol. I, p. 397, l. 12-p. 399, l. 2); AN-A (vol.I, p. 410, l. 1-p. 411, l. 3)
(14) Visākhā arrives in Savatthi. DhA. (vol. I, p. 399, l. 3-p. 400, l. 1); AN-A (vol. I, p. 411, ll. 3-21)
(15) Migāra, follower of the Niganthas. DhA. (vol. I, p. 400, l. 2- 22); AN-A (vol. I, p. 411, l. 21-p.412, l. 13)
(16) Discord with father-in-law. DhA. (vol. I, p. 400, l. 22-p. 402, l. 17); AN-A (vol. I, p. 412, l. 13-p. 414, l. 4)
(17) Meaning of the ten admonitions. DhA. (vol. I, p. 402, l. 17-p. 406, l. 15); AN-A (vol. I, p. 414,l. 4-p. 417, l. 5)
(18) Visākhā, called Migāra's mother (Migāramātā). DhA. (vol. I, p. 406, l. 15-p. 408, l. 1); AN-A(vol. I, p. 417, ll. 5-10)
(19) Number of Visākhā's descendants. DhA. (vol. I, p. 408, ll. 1-17)
(20) Visākhā with the strength of five elephants. DhA. (vol. I, p. 408, l. 17-p. 409, l. 13)
(21) Origins of the establishment of the Pubbārāma Migāramātupāsāda. DhA. (vol. I, p. 409, l. 14-p.417, l. 16); AN-A (vol. I, p. 417, l. 11-p. 418, l. 19)
(22) Visākhā's accomplishments in past lives. DhA. (vol. I, p. 417, l. 16-p. 420, l. 7); AN-A (vol. I,p. 404, l. 20-p. 405, l. 10)
VI Scriptures concerning Pubbārāma Migāramātupāsāda as the location of the Buddha's residence and preaching.

Visākhā, upāsikā, Migāramātā, Pubbārāma Migāramātupāsāda, Sāketa, Migāra, aniyata rules, the eight requests


Visākhā Migāramātā is known as the foremost representative of Sakyamuni's female followers(upāsikā) for the offerings she made the Samgha (exemplified by her donation of rain robes andher eight requests) and her donation of the Pubbārāma Migāramātupāsāda, a monastery on a parwith another monastery in Sāvatthi, the Jetavana, donated by Anāthapindika. She was born in thecountry of Aṅga, and afterwards moved to Sāketa in Kosala. She married Puṇṇavaḍḍhana, son ofthe setthi Migāra, and made many donations to Sakyamuni's Samgha. Knowing her background andachievements aids us in our study of the formative history of the Samgha, for it is useful in helpingus establish the time various events occurred as well as allowing us a greater insight into the rolesperformed by lay followers in the Samgha and the scope of the propagation of Buddhism (Aṅga→Sāketa→Sāvatthi).

This forms the background to our study of descriptions about Visākhā Migāramātā in the earlyscriptures, both Pali and in Chinese translation, and in their commentaries, and we introduce themaccording to the structure outlined below. For details of content, please refer to the Contents.

(1) A list of corresponding accounts in the early Pali scriptures and in the Chinese  gamas andVinayas.

(2) A list of accounts appearing only in the early Pali scriptures to which no corresponding accountscan be found in the Chinese sources.

(3) A list of accounts appearing only in the Chinese  gamas and Vinayas, with no correspondingaccounts in the Pali scriptures.

(4) A list of accounts in the Pali Atthakatha and in materials other than the Chinese translations ofthe early scriptures. Here there is little correspondence between the Pali and Chinese sources, otherthan between the Samantapāsādikā and the Shanjianlü piposha, its reputed translation.

(5) A list of accounts in the Dhammapada-aṭṭhakathā (DhA) and the Aṅguttaranikāya-aṭṭhakathā(AN.-A), which convey the most detailed biographies among the Pali aṭṭhakathā literature. All otheraṭṭhakathā accounts can be found in (4).

(6) A list of sutra and Vinaya references to the Pubbārāma Migāramātupāsāda as the place wherethe Buddha lived and preached. They are included for reference, and do not concern VisākhāMigāramātā directly. This list also appears in the article in Monograph 8 entitled "Places in theEarly Sutras Associated with the Buddha's residence and preaching: Kosala".

As far as the Pali scriptures we have given both the (Japanese) translation and the original text, withthe translation inserted after each paragraph for ease of comparison. In principle the original textis based on the version published by the Pali Text Society. Variants are referred to in footnotes orendnotes. The Chinese translations are based on the original texts published in the Taisho Canonand transliterated into Japanese. Column numbers are not given.

In (5) we have translated (into Japanese) the entirety of the "Visākhā-vatthu" of the Dhammapadaaṭṭhakathā.Because virtually the same text appears in the Aṅguttaranikāya-aṭṭhakathā, we havesimply noted variations when they are at a word level. Differences at sentence level are shown byinserting them directly after the corresponding places in the original text and the translation. Wehave found corresponding passages in (1), (2) and (4). These are indicated in footnotes.